Soil conservation includes various measures that help in preventing the soil from erosion and exhaustion. Soil erosion removes the topsoil which constitutes micro-organisms, precious nutrients and organic matter which plays a vital role in sustaining plant growth of all kinds either naturally or by cultivation.
Soil conservation helps in prevention of soil from eroding and also protects from reduced fertility caused due to excess of consumption, salinization, acidification and other chemical soil pollution. It is easy to disregard the importance of dirt but it is a fact that soil plays a vital role to human kind. However, most of the soil gets destroyed due to the excess uses of pesticides and fertilizers on agricultural lands.
Below mentioned are the various types of measures taken to conserve soil from erosion:
Plant Trees and Ground Cover
The roots of the trees help to bind the soil together and get deeper into the soil which helps to draw nutrients for the plants. A vegetative cover acts as a cover and thereby protect from erosion by wind and rain as well.
Use Terrace Farming
Terracing provides a surrounding that helps in decelerating the erosion of soil.
Wetlands are one of the most important ways to prevent soil erosion by absorbing rainwater or acting as natural sponges. They also provide habitat for wild life. Wetlands help in reducing water pollution.
It is similar to that of terrace farming but on a smaller scale. Crops are mainly planted following the contour of the landscapes rather than planting in vertical rows. As they are planted up and down hillsides, it helps to create pathways for water to flow slowly and thereby prevents soil erosion.
Avoid Till Farming
Practice of no till farming helps to keep soils anchored in place.
Planting of Rain Garden
Rain garden helps to collect precipitation after washing impervious surfaces. It is a formation of a shallow depression in the yard which prevents soil erosion and gives an opportunity to grow wetlands.
Avoid Compacting Soil
We must be alert not to walk on wet soil. Try to use a board at the time of working in a planted area in order to spread your body weight. Always create a specific path and region in the garden and follow that route.
Say No to Dig Gardening Techniques
Digging can destroy the structure of the compacted soil by loosen it and can make it a victim for erosion from wind and water.
Reduce Impervious Surfaces
When water flows over impervious surfaces like driveways and patios it gains momentum and can erode stream banks and lakeshores. In such cases it is good to use paving stones rather than slabs for patios in order to allow the water to penetrate gradually down into the soil.
Most of the surveys prove that over ninety nine percent of the foods meant for mankind are produced from the earth’s soil. So in order to stop soil erosion it is necessary to take strict measures to conserve it.